- despite differences in the design and input assumptions of the various studies, Canadian oil sands crudes are on average somewhat more GHG emission-intensive than the crudes they would displace in the U.S. refineries, with a range of increase from 14%-20% over the average Well-to-Wheel emissions of other imported crudes;
- discounting the final consumption phase of the life-cycle assessment (which can contribute up to 70%-80% of Well-to-Wheel emissions), Well-to-Tank (i.e., production) emissions from Canadian oil sands crudes have a range of increase from 72%-111% over the average Well-to-Tank emissions of other imported crudes;
- Canadian oil sands crudes, on a Well-to-Wheel basis, range from 9%-19% more emission-intensive than Middle Eastern Sour, 5%-13% more emission-intensive than Mexican Maya, and 2%-18% more emission-intensive than various Venezuelan crudes;
- the estimated effect of the proposed Keystone XL pipeline on the U.S. GHG footprint would be an increase of 3 million to 21 million metric tons of GHG emissions annually (equal to the annual GHG emissions from the combustion of fuels in approximately 588,000 to 4,061,000 passenger vehicles); and
- the estimated effect of the Keystone XL pipeline on global GHG emissions remains uncertain, as some speculate that its construction would encourage an expansion of oil sands development, while others suggest that the project would not substantially influence either the rate or magnitude of oil extraction activities in Canada or the overall volume of crude oil transported to and refined in the United States.
32 Years of Environmental Reporting for serious Environmental Professionals